A real-time service oriented architecture for Industry 4.0

Manufacturing and industrial automation are under pressure from shortened product life-cycles and the demand for a shorter time to market in many areas. The next generation of manufacturing systems will therefore be built with flexibility and reconfiguration as a fundamental objective.
manufacturing_evolution

This change is eminent in the transition from traditional, centralized control applications to an interconnected, cooperative “Internet of Things” model. Strong hierarchies are broken in favor of meshed, networks and formerly passive devices are replaced with “smart objects” that are network enabled and can perform compute operations.
automation_pyramid
The software side has to match and leverage the changes in the hardware. Service Oriented Architectures (SOAs) are a well known concept from business computing to deal with flexibility and reconfiguration requirements in a loosely coupled manner. However, the common concepts of SOAs cannot be directly mapped to embedded networks and industrial control applications, because of the hard boundary conditions, such as limited resources and real-time requirements.

The rtSOA project brings both worlds together. Aimed at the lower layers of the automation pyramid, it focuses on the hard real time data streams encountered in control applications while briding the gap to event based communication in higher layers. A primary research goal thereby is the development of concepts for (semi-)automatic service composition to support flexibility in re-tooling and quick adaptation to failures in the automation chain. Smart but resource constrained sensors and actuators are directly integrated as first-class members in the SOA instead of being accessed through gateway or mediator.

My related publications

2016

  • [PDF] T. Kothmayr, A. Kemper, A. Scholz, and J. Heuer, “Instant Service Choreographies for Reconfigurable Manufacturing Systems – a Demonstrator,” in Proceedings of the 2016 International Conference on IEEE Emerging Technology and Factory Automation (ETFA’16), 2016.
    [Bibtex]
    @inproceedings{kothmayr2016instant,
      title={Instant Service Choreographies for Reconfigurable Manufacturing Systems - a Demonstrator},
      author={Kothmayr, Thomas and Kemper, Alfons and Scholz, Andreas and Heuer, Jörg},
      booktitle={Proceedings of the 2016 International Conference on IEEE Emerging Technology and Factory Automation (ETFA'16)},
      year={2016},
    }

2015

  • [PDF] [DOI] T. Kothmayr, A. Kemper, A. Scholz, and J. Heuer, “Schedule-based Service Choreographies for Real-Time Control Loops,” in Proceedings of the 2015 International Conference on IEEE Emerging Technology and Factory Automation (ETFA’15), 2015.
    [Bibtex]
    @inproceedings{kothmayr2015schedule,
      title={Schedule-based Service Choreographies for Real-Time Control Loops},
      author={Kothmayr, Thomas and Kemper, Alfons and Scholz, Andreas and Heuer, Jörg},
      booktitle={Proceedings of the 2015 International Conference on IEEE Emerging Technology and Factory Automation (ETFA'15)},
      year={2015},
      doi = {10.1109/ETFA.2015.7301434},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/ETFA.2015.7301434}
    }
  • [PDF] [DOI] T. Kothmayr, A. Kemper, A. Scholz, and J. Heuer, “Synthesizing Schedules Through Heuristics for Hard Real-Time Workflows,” in Proceedings of the 2015 IEEE International Conference on Industrial Technology (ICIT’15), 2015.
    [Bibtex]
    @inproceedings{kothmayr2015synthesizing,
      title={Synthesizing Schedules Through Heuristics for Hard Real-Time Workflows},
      author={Kothmayr, Thomas and Kemper, Alfons and Scholz, Andreas and Heuer, Jörg},
      booktitle={Proceedings of the 2015 IEEE International Conference on Industrial Technology (ICIT'15)},
      year={2015},
      doi = {10.1109/ICIT.2015.7125380},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/ICIT.2015.7125380}
    }

2014

  • [PDF] [DOI] T. Kothmayr, A. Kemper, A. Scholz, and J. Heuer, “Machine ballets don’t need conductors: Towards scheduling based service choreographies in a real-time SOA for industrial automation,” in Proceedings of the 2014 International Conference on IEEE Emerging Technology and Factory Automation (ETFA’14), 2014.
    [Bibtex]
    @inproceedings{kothmayr2014machine,
      title={Machine ballets don’t need conductors: Towards scheduling based service choreographies in a real-time SOA for industrial automation},
      author={Kothmayr, Thomas and Kemper, Alfons and Scholz, Andreas and Heuer, Jörg},
      booktitle={Proceedings of the 2014 International Conference on IEEE Emerging Technology and Factory Automation (ETFA'14)},
      year={2014},
      doi = {10.1109/ETFA.2014.7005260},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/ETFA.2014.7005260}
    }
  • [PDF] T. Kothmayr, J. Hirscheider, A. Kemper, A. Scholz, and J. Heuer, “Comparing Heuristics and Linear Programming Formulations for Scheduling of In-Tree Tasksets,” in Proceedings of the Work in Progress Session of the 20th IEEE Real-Time and Embedded Technology and Applications Symposium (RTAS’14 WiP), 2014.
    [Bibtex]
    @inproceedings{kothmayr2014comparing,
      title={Comparing Heuristics and Linear Programming Formulations for Scheduling of In-Tree Tasksets},
      author={Kothmayr, Thomas and Hirscheider, Jakob and Kemper, Alfons and Scholz, Andreas and Heuer, Jörg},
      booktitle={Proceedings of the Work in Progress Session of the 20th IEEE Real-Time and Embedded Technology and Applications Symposium (RTAS'14 WiP)},
      year={2014},
      organization={IEEE},
      url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.13140/2.1.2080.4805}
    }